Traumatic Brain Injury
The Common Vein Copyright 2010
leading cause of death in young adults and children.
igh incidence of BBB breakdown in patients with TBI a
BBB breakdown frequently follows head trauma and can last from several days to weeks
Onset of the early phase is rapid: the permeability of the BBB typically reaches a maximum within a few hours and subsequently declines. The onset of the second phase is delayed, starting from 3-7 days following injury, and probably constitutes part of the brain’s response to the injury.
an be a direct result of the traumatic
impact injury endothelium of small blood vessels often incurs a concomitant shear injury
Other mechanisms, such as vasospasm
cerebral blood flow autoregulatory failure
regularities in nitric oxide secretion
resultant ischemic state. BBB breakdown might also contribute to the extracellular accumulation of excitatory amino acids, which results in excitotoxicity
edema inflammation neuronal death Several functional changes in astrocyte properties – glial scar formation seizures
Dan Shlosberg, MD, PhD; Mony Benifla, MD, MSc; Daniela Kaufer, PhD; Alon Friedman, MD, PhD
Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown as a Therapeutic Target in Traumatic Brain Injury